Today I’d like us to build our own Reactive Mobile Framework. A Reactive UI Framework should allow us to build apps declaratively by manipulating User Event Streams.

Now we’re not going to write such a Framework from scratch, but we’d like to use an existing Framework and create some Bindings, so that we can use it reactively. Examples for these types of wrappers are RxCocoa for the Cocoa and Cocoa Touch Frameworks, RxBinding for Android or RxSwing for the Java Swing toolkit.

First we have to choose the UI Framework we’re going to work with. I’ve spent a lot of time working with mobile Reactive Frameworks, so for today, I’d like to create some Bindings for the Xamarin.Forms toolkit. Xamarin.Forms is a cross-platform UI Framework that lets you create native UIs for both Android and iOS, by leveraging the .NET Framework. We’re going to write our code in F#, since it just supports the functional paradigm a lot better.

Now without further ado let’s identify what exactly it takes to create such a Wrapper.

Firstly, we’ll need to have a way to create an event stream from user interactions, for example, we should be able to create an event stream from a toggle or checkbox, that emits boolean values. We’ll call these interactions event sources, some frameworks like RxBinding will only support bindings for event sources.

Next, we will need a way to take event streams and bind them to a View. An easy example is a function that takes a stream of Strings and binds them to a Label. We’ll call these event sinks, since that’s where our streams will go into.

So one of the easiest programs we can imagine with this kind of setup is a Switch that emits boolean values that then get mapped to some kind of text which finally gets bound to a Label. I made a small diagram to illustrate what’s happening:


Alright, now let’s get codin’! The first thing we’re gonna do is create the source function for the Switch. The function will accept a Switch and return an Observable<bool>. Creating new Observables is fairly straight forward. Let’s look at a small example:

Observable.Create(fun (o: IObserver<int>) ->

We use the Observable.Create function and call the OnNext, OnError and OnCompleted functions to emit values and errors.

Now that we know how to create Observables, let’s finally create one for the Switch:

module RxForms =
    let fromSwitch (s: Switch) = Observable.Create(fun (o: IObserver<bool>) ->
        s.Toggled.Subscribe(fun t -> o.OnNext(t.Value)))

Here we again create an Observable that emits the value of the Switch everytime it’s toggled. We don’t need to call OnError or OnCompleted, since the Switch won’t error out or stop emitting. Yay! We created our first source binding! We placed in a module called RxForms, where we’ll place all of our binding functions from now on.

Okay, so let’s continue by defining a sink. We’ll call our function bindLabel and it’ll take an Observable<string> and a Label and it’ll return a Subscription.

let bindEntry (l: Label) (o: IObservable<string>) =
    o |> Observable.subscribe(fun s -> l.Text <- s)

Now that we’ve created functions to extract sources and bind to sinks, we have a basis on which we could expand and wrap around all of the Xamarin.Forms widgets. So go! No time to lose, the Api has dozens of Views to wrap, but first let’s see if our cute little program actually works. Here’s the code:

type App() =
    inherit Application()
    let stack = 
        StackLayout(VerticalOptions = LayoutOptions.Center)
    let switch = Switch()
    let label = Label()

    let switchEvents = 
        RxForms.fromSwitch switch |> (fun b -> if b then "On" else "Off")

    let subscription = 
        switchEvents |> RxForms.bindLabel label

    do stack.Children.Add(switch)
    do stack.Children.Add(label)
    do base.MainPage <- ContentPage(Content = stack)

We’re using the simplest layout With a StackLayout and then create both a Switch and a Label and then use our functions to wire everything up. Here’s how this would look on iOS:


Notice, though, that we currently have to handle the subscription manually. If we fleshed out our Framework, we could create a mechanism, that unsubscribes automatically, whenever the bound view get’s destroyed (This is what RxCocoa’s DisposeBag does, maybe we’ll implement this in another article).

I could probably end this article here, but let’s look at a few more examples. First, some easy stuff:

let fromButton (b: Button) = Observable.Create(fun (o: IObserver<unit>) -> 
    b.Clicked.Subscribe(fun _ -> o.OnNext( () )))
let bindEntry (e: Entry) (o: IObservable<string>) =
    o |> Observable.subscribe(fun s -> e.Text <- s) 
let bindListView (list: ListView) (o: IObservable<List<_>>) =
    o |> Observable.subscribe(fun ts -> list.ItemsSource <- ts) 

With these, we can easily use Buttons, ListViews and Entrys (Entrys are simple Textfields). So let’s use these new widgets to create the most over used example app: The Todo app! Yaaaay! The Todo app is great though, because it usually demonstrates how to handle state.

One option for implementing such an app would be to add both a Button and an Entry and combine them, but Entry also offers a Event that emits once the user ends input. Let’s add a function to extract such a source:

let fromEntryCompleted (e: Entry) = Observable.Create(fun (o: IObserver<_>) -> 
    e.Completed.Subscribe(fun s -> o.OnNext(e.Text)))

We’ll start by adding both an Entry and a ListView and extracting an Observable<string> from the Entry:

type App() =
    inherit Application()

    let stack = 
        StackLayout(Padding = Thickness(0.0, 40.0, 0.0, 0.0))
    let editText = 
        Entry(Placeholder = "What needs to be done?", Margin = Thickness(10.0, 0.0))
    let listView = 
        ListView(Margin = Thickness(10.0, 0.0))

    let submittedTodos = 
        RxForms.fromEntryCompleted editText

Now what we’d like to accumulate these todos into a list of todos, a List<string>. To do that, we’ll use the scan operator, which is like a reducer, but emits all the intermediary values. Once again, I made a diagram to explain this (a picture speak a thousand words).


So every time our Entry completes, we add a new item to our list. This is how that looks in code:

let todoLists = 
    Observable.scan (fun acc cur -> acc |> List.append [cur]) [] submittedTodos

let subscription = 
    todoLists |> RxForms.bindListView listView

And with that, we’re done right? Well not quite, since now every time we submit a Todo, our Entry doesn’t clear, which kinda sucks. So we need to write another binding for Entrys. However, I’m going to leave that as an exercise for you, dear reader! Instead, here’s a gif on how it should look in the end (I’ll upload the final code, just in case you get stuck).



So that’s it for now, I hope, that with your help, we can bring Reactive Programming to more and more UI Frameworks. Me, personally, I’d really like to see a full fledged Library made out of what we started in this article. In case you have any questions, I’d love to hear them, so just post them in the comments down below. The full code of this article can be found here. Happy Coding everyone!

What makes a language functional? Well, that’s a good question! Some people say that lambdas make a language a functional language. Others say it’s the ability to bind functions to variables. But that in itself isn’t really all it takes right? After all, we could do this with function pointers in C! And I don’t think many would claim C is a functional language, right?

In this article I’ll try to go over some specific features that I personally think make or break a functional programming language. Now pay in mind, that a lot of this is going to be fairly subjective, but I’d love to hear your thoughts in the comments!

So without further ado here’s what we will take a look at throughout this article (in order of most to last important to functional programming):

  • First Class Functions
  • Immutability
  • Recursion
  • Expression-Oriented Programming
  • Currying
  • Lazy Evaluation
  • Algebraic Data Types
  • Other topics (Higher Kinded Types, Existential Types)

First class functions

Most languages support this nowadays, Java 8 brought First Class functions to the language and C++ also included them in C++11. Having functions be first class basically only really means that you can use them the same way you would use any other value, like being able to bind functions to variables and pass them around your application.

Now there have been a lot of different names for what is basically just a couple of concepts, so we’ll try and go through them shortly.

Anonymous Functions AKA Lambda Expressions

Lambdas and anonymous functions are essentially the same thing, it’s just a function that doesn’t have a binding to an identifier. So they’re just easy ways for creating functions, in the same sense that some languages allow literals for Arrays or dictionaries. Anonymous functions originate in Alonzo Church’s Lambda Calculus, hence the name. Here’s an example in python: With that we’ve defined a variable holding a function that will square a given number when applied. Pretty straight forward!

Lexical Closures

Now closures are often confused with lambdas and it’s not difficult to understand why. All closures are anonymous functions, but it doesn’t work vice versa. Closures are special functions, that close over the environment where it was created, meaning it can gain access to values not in its parameter list. Very similar to how methods can access instance variables. You’ve probably already heard of the saying “Closures are the poor man’s objects”. Let’s take a look at an example in Kotlin: In this snippet we can see that the function passed to forEach gets access to the sum variable and can even modify it. So closures and lambdas go hand in hand, then what’s the deal with Higher order functions?

Higher Order Functions

Most of you have probably already used Higher Order Functions. HOFs are just functions that take another function as a parameter. So any function that takes a callback function could be considered a HOF. Other very notable example include functions like map, filter reduce. Here’s an example for a filter-function in Swift: Here predicate is a function that takes a parameter of type T and returns a Bool depending on if the element matches the predicate or not. You’ll find many of these HOFs in most functional languages and it’s almost an absolut must for doing any kind of functional programming.


Immutability plays a big part in FP, a small subset of functional languages are so called “pure” functional languages. Purity means, that absolutely everything is immutable. Examples for this are Haskell, Elm and (as the name suggests) PureScript.

So on the one side we’ve got languages where everything is immutable, but on the other side we also have languages where immutability is unavailable. JavaScript has often been touted as a functional language, butit didn’t have any way to make variables immutable until ES6 and even then it’s only limited to local variables and there’s still no way to declare instance variables to be immutable (unless you’re using Object.freeze). Other languages where immutability is also lacking are Python and Ruby.

Now this is not the only metric for how much a given language supports immutability. Another is of course, how much the language encourages you to write immutable code. In Java and C# for example you need to add an extra keyword to make a value immutable (C# also doesn’t allow Type Inference on immutable values).

Put this in contrast to Rust:

It’s quite clear which programming language wants to encourage you to use immutable values. Some compilers (like Rust and Swift) also emit a warning if you use a mutable variable, but don’t mutate it.

Lots of functional languages also offer a way to copy an Object or Record, but with one or multiple values modified. This makes creating a new value almost exactly as easy as modifying the original. Here’s an example of what that might look like in Elm:

Another thing to consider is something traditionally called “const correctness”, which means that you can’t mutate parts of a value if it’s declared immutable. For example this is legal in Java: Where as the equivalent would throw a compiler error in C++.

Now the last thing to consider is whether or not your language supports performant immutable data structures. Languages like Kotlin and Swift support simple readonly data structures, that are the same as their mutual counterpart, but not being able to modify it.

Other more functional languages offer us special collections that are optimized for immutability. These immutable data structures have operators that can modify and return a copy of the original. Most of the time, however we don’t even need to copy most of the collection and can instead reuse it, because we don’t need to worry about subsequent code making changes to our data. So there’s no need to defensively copy the whole structure, saving both memory and time! This is called data sharing and is a huge benefit of immutable data structures.

The coolest collections come from the late Scala community leader Phil Bagwell (R.I.P.), essentially they offer amortized O(1) lookups, insertions and deletions on Vectors and HashMaps. You can find these data structures in Clojures and Scalas standard library as well as in libraries such as Immutable.js. There’s a lot of super interesting stuff to talk about, so if you’re interested check out this great series on how these data structures actually work.


Most if not all of modern programming languages support the notion of recursion However it plays a much bigger part in functional programming than in imperative programming. That is because when programming in a functional way, iterating over data structure recursively is not just much more elegant, but also the only way to iterate without invoking side-effects.

In order for this to be efficient, most functional languages offer an optimization technique called “Tail Call Optimization”. With this technique it’s possible for recursive functions to not increase the size of the call stack. In other words: the compiler more or less replaces the original function with the equivalent of an imperative loop.

Going into too much detail here would break the scope of the article, so here’s the gist of it: if the last thing you do (i.e. the “tail” position) in a function is a recursive call to itself, the compiler can optimize this to act like iteration instead of recursion.

So if you want to do functional programming in your language without having to worry about stack overflows, your language should probably provide some form of TCO.

Some languages make writing tail recursive functions a lot easier by giving you a way to mark them as such. For example Scala supports a way explicitly annotate a function as tail recursive and let the compiler throw an error when it isn’t.

This guarantees that an error is issued whenever tail call optimization cannot be performed by the compiler.

Expression-Oriented Programming

To understand Expression-Oriented programming we first need to define the difference between expressions and statements. This is best explained by contrasting return types of different functions. For example a void type means the method is probably a statement, since it doesn’t a result. Everything else is an expression and yields a value when computed. Typically the former looks something like list.sort() while expressions look like sorted = sort(list).

To put it simply, in Expression-Oriented programming languages everything is an expression! Which means that everything has a return value. This is something we aspire to because statements always have side effects and should be avoided as much as possible in functional programming.

Rust, Ruby, Kotlin and more functional languages like Scala, Elm, Haskell or F# all use this paradigm. This means that for example the if-construct always returns a result:

Another neat example are Scala’s “for-expressions” which involve some syntactical sugar that looks very similar to for-loops found in imperative languages.


Currying is when you break down a function that takes multiple parameters into a series of functions each taking a parameter and returning a new function. A simple example would be this:

I’ve written in depth about the workings and advantages of Currying and the most often confused technique of partial application in an earlier article. Both Currying and partial application are very useful tools in the functional programming world and most functional languages make it very easy to do so. For example in Haskell or one of the different ML-derived languages, it’s mostly impossible to even write an uncurried version of functions. Functions are just curried by default! Here’s some Haskell code: The type signature of the add function is Integer -> Integer -> Integer, meaning it takes an Int and returns a function that takes an Int and returns an Int. This allows us to just pass one argument to the add function and get another generic function that adds the passed argument. Different languages handle this differently, but it’s a pretty important tool in the functional programmers toolkit!

Scala for example lets you partially apply functions easily by passing an underscore _ as a function parameter. Swift is a rather curious example, because it supported a very way of writing curried functions, but has since deprecated them without any real replacement.

Lazy evaluation

Lazy evaluation is a technique to defer the computation of expressions to when they are really needed. This is in contrast to eager evaluation, where every expression is evaluated immediately. Lazy evaluation can be very beneficial when programming in a functional way. Let’s look at an example of eager evaluation in JavaScript:

In this example each operation returns a new copy immediately once called. What we’d like to do is use higher-order functions like map and filter instead of manually fusing passes, but without having to create intermediate data structures and having to iterate the structure multiple times. This can be solved quite handily using lazy evaluation.

So now let’s have a look at equivalent code using lazy evaluation: Wait a minute… it’s the same basic code! Well yeah it is, the truly interesting stuff is happening behind the scenes, but this code can demonstrate a few things.

Firstly, we no longer create intermediate copys of the list, in fact nothing even gets computed untill we access the first element by calling the head method. Secondly, since we’re only accessing the first element of the list, all the operations are only applied once and we can save a lot of execution time. We do not need to evaluate the whole list, when all we want to do is print out the first element.

In Haskell lazy evaluation is the default, but in most other functional languages it’s opt in. Examples for these are the various Lisps, Scala and F#.

Algebraic Data Types

Algebraic data types? Aw man, what’s this fancy maths stuff? I just want to program cool stuff! Alright! I won’t go into too much detail here, so bear with me for a moment! Okay, so most functional languages allow you to define simple data types. These ADTs are simple data cointainers that can be defined recursively. They can be easily constructed and deconstructed and usually come with built in structural equality checking.

All of this allows us to utilize a technique called “Pattern matching”. Pattern matching is a kind of switch-case on steroids, it can do type-testing, it can check exhaustiveness and it can destructure it’s arguments. Let’s have a look at an example written in Scala:

This is just a rather simple example, but I’m sure you can imagine how powerful the match expression can be. An ADT can be anything by the way, from Tuples to Lists, to Records. So Pattern matching is extremely useful because we can decompose any kind of data structure by its shape instead of its contents.

With pattern matching navigating and decomposing data structures becomes very convenient, with a compact syntax.

Other advanced features

There’s two other things I’d like to atleast give a mention, they’re both fairly complex and probably warrant a whole article just to get a good understanding. Furthermore they’re both features of a type system, which might be interesting in staticly typed languages, but no so much for dynamic ones.

Higher kinded Types

The first feature is the ability to create “Higher Kinded Types”, which can be seen as providing a way to is the ability to generically abstract over things that take type parameters Here’s an example with a Functor in Scala: Here F[_] could be anything that takes a generic parameter, so Option[T] or List[T] would both be fine.

Existential Types

The other feature is called “Existential Types” can be used for several different purposes, but what they do is to ‘hide’ a type parameter for outside use. Sometimes you don’t care about the actual type but only that it exists. Existential types can make this a reality without making the type parameter covariant.


Now I’d like to conclude without telling you which language is a functional language or which one isn’t. The line is probably more blurred than not and it’s impossible to find some objective criteria for a functional language. We could argue for ages about what or what doesn’t constitute one and how we should weigh these features on a scale from 1 to 100, instead I think we’ve got a fair overview of features functional programmers use everyday.

My hope is that after reading this article, you understand that lambdas aren’t the only criteria and what else might play a role in programming in a functional way. Yes we can do functional programming in almost any language, but in most that would be more cumbersome than we’d like and we should probably strive to use the right tool for the right job. Once you try out a language that has a lot of these “functional” features, you’ll probably find programming with pure functions a lot more pleasant. And I hope you guys can also enjoy functional programming more once you’ve got a hold on some of these cool features.

Asynchronous Programming is hard. Especially without the right tools. In one of my previous posts, I talked about how to make asynchronous programming more bearable using RxJS. Today we’re going to look at another implementation of the ReactiveX Api, RxSwift.

I’m not going to go into much detail on the basics of FRP, so if you don’t know what Reactive Programming is all about, I suggest you check out my previous posts or this great article about the fundamentals of RxSwift.

In its most basic way Functional Reactive Programming is about using event streams as your data and composing them via functions. In FRP, everything is a stream of events. We can then observe these streams and react accordingly. Swift already has a feature called Property Observers which go in a similar direction, but are much less powerful than RxSwift.

The actual term “Functional Reactive Programming” was originally coined in the 90s and it’s disputed whether the ReactiveX Api’s really are formulations of FRP. But I personally like to think of FRP as a programming style streching across different formulations (Elm creator Evan Czaplicki made a great video about this).


RxCocoa is to Cocoa what RxSwift is to Swift. RxSwift provides the fundamentals of Observables and RxCocoa provides extensions to the Cocoa and Cocoa Touch frameworks to take advantage of RxSwift.

Now without further ado, let’s start building our first iOS application utlizing our reactive approach. For that you’ll need to install RxSwift and RxCocoa, so add them to your Pod- or Cartfile, depending on which you use.

Once that’s done we can begin for real. We’re going to create an application where we can save and review different movies on a scale from 0.0 to 10.0.

For starters, we’ll create a TableView and a corresponding TableViewCell in our Interface Builder. In our cell, we’d like to display the Title and the score, so we’ll add to UILabels to it. Then let’s also add an “Add” Button in our Navigation Bar, to dynamically add new Movies to our Table.

So far so good, next we’ll start writing some code for our model and our Cell. Our model is very simple right now and should only contain data for our title and our rating. Here’s how it should look:

class Movie {
    let title: Variable<String>
    let rating: Variable<Float>
        title  = Variable("")
        rating = Variable(Float(5.0))
    init(title: Variable<String>, rating: Variable<Float>){
        self.title = title
        self.rating = rating

Notice, we define our title and rating as type Variable. If you know other flavors of Rx you can think of them as BehaviourSubjects. Basically it emits the most recent item it has observed immediatly to each subscriber. This allows us to push data to a Variable, but also allow subscribing to it, this will be useful later on.

Next up is our movie table cell:

class MovieTableViewCell: UITableViewCell {

    @IBOutlet weak var ratingLabel: UILabel!
    @IBOutlet weak var titleLabel: UILabel!
    var movie: Movie?

Really nothing special going on here at all. We’ve connected our two Labels to our Class via the @IBOutlet Annotation.

Now it’s time for the real meat of the application, our TableView. Because it’s quite a lot to handle, I’ve segmented the code into several smaller pieces:

class MovieTableController: UIViewController {

    @IBOutlet weak var movieTable: UITableView!
    @IBOutlet weak var addButton: UIBarButtonItem!
    let disposeBag = DisposeBag()
    let initialMovies: [Movie] = [
        Movie(title: Variable("Die Hard"), rating: Variable(Float(10.0))),
        Movie(title: Variable("Twilight"), rating: Variable(Float(1.0)))
    func initState(addButton: UIBarButtonItem) -> Observable<[Movie]> {
        let add = addButton.rx_tap
            .map{_ in  Movie()}
            .scan(initialMovies, accumulator: { (acc,cur) in
                var copy = acc
                return copy
        return add.startWith(initialMovies)
    func setupCell(row: Int, element: Movie, cell: MovieTableViewCell){ = element

Now this certainly looks like a lot, but it’s actually kind of simple. At first we set up our DisposeBag. This is needed, because the Swift runtime doesn’t have Garbage Collection, but relies on Automatic Reference Counting. To avoid memory leaks, we’ll have to put our Subscriptions into a DisposeBag.

In our initState function we retrieve a Stream of button pressed from our addButton, map each press, to create a new Movie, then use the scan operator to add the new movie to our array and finally tell it to start with our initial movies. Sadly Swift doesn’t support immutable appends, so we have to do it the verbose way of copying, appending and returning the copy.

In our setupCell method we configure our two labels, by binding our Observables to the rx_text field of the labels. In the case of the Rating we first have to transform our Float values to Strings.

Now for the next part:

    override func viewDidLoad() {
        let movies = initState(addButton)
        movies.bindTo(movieTable.rx_itemsWithCellIdentifier("movieCell", cellType: MovieTableViewCell.self)) (configureCell: setupCell)

In this snippet, we bind the Observable of Movie-Arrays to our TableView using the rx_itemsWithCellIdentifer method. This returns a partially applied function, where we can pass the setup code we defined earlier for each individual cell.

Now the basics of our app should run. However, we now always add an empty Movie which we can’t edit at all. That’s rather unfortunate so let’s change that by adding a detail view where we can edit and add new Movies.

For that let’s start by creating a ViewController in the Interface Builder with a TextField for our movie title, a Slider for our review score and a Label to display the score in text. Next we’ll define a segue from our TableController to our DetailController.

Then we’ll need to define when to actually perform the segue. In our TableView add the following code to the end of viewDidLoad:

movies.skip(1).subscribeNext { arr in
    self.performSegueWithIdentifier("editMovie", sender: self.movieTable.visibleCells.last)

movieTable.rx_itemSelected.subscribeNext { index in
    self.performSegueWithIdentifier("editMovie", sender: self.movieTable.cellForRowAtIndexPath(index))

And then also add this method:

override func prepareForSegue(segue: UIStoryboardSegue, sender: AnyObject?) {
    if let movieController = segue.destinationViewController as? MovieDetailController {
        if let movieCell = sender as? MovieTableViewCell{

When performing side effects such as switching views, we need to manually subscribe to our Observables using subscribeNext. We can do this everytime we add to our movies and when we select a specific movie using rx_itemSelected.

In our prepareForSegue method we pass the movie from our cell to our MovieDetailController, which we have yet to define so let’s start right now.

First we create a ViewController in the Interface Builder with a TextField for our movie title, a Slider for our review score and a Label to display the score in text.

Then we create a class for our new controller:

class MovieDetailController: UIViewController {

    @IBOutlet weak var titleField: UITextField!
    @IBOutlet weak var ratingSlider: UISlider!
    @IBOutlet weak var ratingLabel: UILabel!
    var movie: Movie?
    let disposeBag = DisposeBag()
    override func viewDidLoad() {
        //define our stuff here

Pretty straightforward. Now let’s define the relationships of our components and our movie. I’m not going to post the full code here since it’s just more of the same and the article is already quite code heavy, but here’s an idea of what to expect:

let rating = { round(10 * $0)/10}

Now after getting up to this point, this shouldn’t look very alien to you anymore. We use the round function to truncate to 1 digit of precision and then bind it to our Movie model and our label’s rx_text.

If you’ve done everything right your app should now look something like this:


And with that we’re done a fully reactive approach to iOS programming. I hope you enjoyed this piece and try it out sometime. If you’re intrigued at all I suggest checking out the RxSwift Repo for more information. You don’t need to commit to it fully, but I feel RxSwift also works really well for just a couple of your Views.

As usual, all code shown here, can also be found in this GitHub repo

In my last post, I tried to show how to do Functional Reactive Programming in Angular 2. Now I’ve heard from some people that it’s too complicated and you shouldn’t ever really do it. I definitely understand that, switching programming paradigms is probably the most difficult change you can make, as it requires you to forget almost everything you already learned.

While showing the benefits of another programming paradigm is quite difficult and always to some extent subjective, showing some real performance benefits is a lot more objective. The real problem with mutable data, is that it can be slow while performing change detection.

Change detection

This problem, of course isn’t exclusive to Angular, but can be applied to e.g. React as well. There are some great resources out there to fully understand how Angular 2’s change detection system really works, but I’ll give it a shot and try to recap the most important points here.

The first problem really is how do you know a change occured? When using mutable data, what you have to do is do a deep equality check, i.e. checking every single property of an object if it’s still the same. If our component tree is very large, this can be very very expensive, because change detection will trigger on every browser event. Starting to sound really ineffecient, right? I did a quick diagram in to visualize what I’m saying: Tree

When something changes (in red) all components have to be checked.

One solution to this problem would be to make our data immutable, preferably with some framework like Immutable.js. With immutable data, we no longer have to do deep equality checks. This is because the data can never be changed, so if we want to check for changes, we can just do a reference equality check. So now instead of checking every single leaf of our tree, we just need to check the paths where our components aren’t referentially equal. Here’s another diagram, to show you what’s changed: Tree with Immutable data

This time we only have to check those that aren’t referentially equal and don’t have to check their children (in grey).

Also, if you want even more insight check out this video from React Conf about Immutable.js.

Moving on to Observables we can get even better performance! This is because we can simply subscribe to our Observable to get notified when it emits an event immediatly. We no longer have to go through all components from the root, but only the path from the root to our changed component. This is how that looks: Tree with Observables

So what does this mean in real terms?

In Angular 2 for normal use, we can guarantee that the change detection is O(n) where n is the number of components in the tree (which is already much faster than Angular 1 thanks to the Unidirectional data flow). When using Observables, we get essentially O(log(n)) which is awesome!

Now of course this still isn’t “real” data, so I took it upon myself to create a little “benchmark”. I rewrote the app from the last article using ngModel and mutable data to see the differences. So our new template now looks like this:

    <h2>{{ }}</h2>
        <input type="text" [(ngModel)]=""><br/>
        <label>Height (cm):</label>
        <input type="number" [(ngModel)]="form.height"><br/>
        <label>Weight (kg):</label>
        <input type="number" [(ngModel)]="form.weight"><br/>
    <div><strong> Body Mass Index (BMI) = {{ getBmi() }}</strong></div>
    <div><strong> Category: {{ getCategory() }}</strong></div>

I ran both versions with lots and lots of these components and profiled them with Chrome. These are the results:

Using ngModel

Here we’re using ngModel and we can see it takes about 58ms for one change detection cycle. The total aggregated time of change detection throughout the period of testing is 119.15 ms.

Using Observables

Here we’re using Observables and it’s already much quicker. We get 20 ms for this one function and an aggregated result of 46.18 ms. That’s about a 2.5-3x performance increase! Not bad if you ask me.


Of course, most of the time performance is not going to be that big of an issue, but if you have a complex app and you want it to also run on mobile, where cpu cycles are much more valuable, you might want to consider one of these approaches. You don’t even have to commit to one approach fully, but you can mix and match as you please. Check out Victor Savkin’s talk about change detection if you’d like to learn more. Another great resource, is this article by Pascal Precht, where he gives a complete breakdown about change detection in the more general sense. Hope you enjoyed reading this and would love to hear your thoughts!

Today we’re going to do a quick run-down on how to build Angular 2 applications using Functional Reactive Programming. As Angular 2 approaches its release, many developers have already had their hands on the various Alpha and Beta releases. Angular 2 is not an opinionanted framework and there’s dozens of articles, blog posts and tutorials about different kind of architectural styles, but one thing I felt was strange, was the lack of articles talking about Functional Reactive Programming in Angular 2.

Unlike Angular 1.x, Angular 2 has unidirectional data flow, which makes reasoning about it that much more easier. On top of that Angular 2 is built using RxJS and exposes RxJS Observables in the Forms and HTTP API.

Introducing Functional Reactive Programming

Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a paradigm for creating entire applications with nothing but streams of values over time. These streams can be anything from mouseclicks and button presses to lists of users and HTTP requests. Combining, modifying and subscribing to these event streams is basically all we ever do in this paradigm.

If you already know Functional Programming, FRP is going to be much easier to grasp. The same as in Functional Programming, we want to avoid any kind of mutable state and program by composing pure functions. Pure functions are functions that do not have any side effects, meaning the function always results in the same return value, when given the same arguments.

All of this will make our code much more concise, we can now program by telling the computer what you want to have, instead of how to get it. In that sense FRP is declarative, rather than imperative. We can now program at a higher abstraction level, similar to how coding in Angular 1.x featured a much higher abstraction level than coding with jQuery only. This reduces a lot of common errors and bugs, especially as your applications become more and more complex.

I’m not going to go into any more detail here, but if you’d like to know more, check out this introduction by Cycle.js creator André Staltz. Basically what FRP is about is this: Everything is a Stream, as André phrases it in his intro.

Everything is an Observable

In RxJS (and all the different implementations of ReactiveX) these streams we talked about are called Observables. In Angular 2, we can get Observables by sending HTTP requests, or using the Control API. Angular 2 also makes it easy to render these Observables, by subscribing to their value.

Again, I’m not going to go into more depth here, since it would be beyond the scope of this article, but if you want, you can check out this this video by Sergi Mansilla about FRP using RxJS (I can also really recommend his book!).

Without further ado, let’s start creating a small sample app, where we can calculate a BMI for a specific person. The first thing we’re going to want to do is creating a model.

export class Person {
    name: Observable<string> = Observable.create();
    bmi: Observable<number> = Observable.create();
    category: Observable<string> = Observable.create();

As we can see here, our model is fully comprised of Observables. I wasn’t kidding when saying Everything is an Observable.

Now it’s time to create our template:

    <h2>{{ | async }}</h2>
    <form [ngFormModel]="form">
        <input type="text" ngControl="name"><br/>
        <label>Height (cm):</label>
        <input type="number" ngControl="height"><br/>
        <label>Weight (kg):</label>
        <input type="number" ngControl="weight"><br/>
    <div><strong> Body Mass Index (BMI) = {{ person.bmi | async }}</strong></div>
    <div><strong> Category: {{ person.category | async }} </strong></div>

Notice the async pipe? This is a really neat feature, that allows us to bind Observables to the template. So now we have a model, and a template to display and edit the data. The next thing we need is a component to put it all together.

    selector: "person-bmi",
    templateUrl: 'templates/bmi-unit.html',
    changeDetection: ChangeDetectionStrategy.OnPush
export class BmiComponent {
    form: ControlGroup;
    nameControl: Control = new Control("");
    @Input('person') person: Person
    constructor(fb: FormBuilder) {
        this.form ={
            "name": this.nameControl,
            "height": new Control(""),
            "weight": new Control("")
    ngOnInit(){ = this.nameControl.valueChanges;
        this.person.bmi = this.form.valueChanges
        .map(value => toBmi(value.weight, value.height))
        .filter(value => value > 0);
        this.person.category = => toCategory(bmi));

Now, I know this is a quite large snippet, but let’s walk through it. The first thing of note, is the change detection strategy. By setting it to OnPush we get a huge performance boost, because internally Angular doesn’t need to do deep equality checks on every browser event anymore. So we don’t just get more organized code, but we also make it faster. Check out this link for more on how Change detection works in Angular 2.

Secondly, notice how we put the initialization inside ngOnInit instead of the constructor. Since our Person is an marked as an Input field, we don’t have access to it inside the constructor, so we resort to ngOnInit.

The next thing to notice is that the valueChanges field on a Control or ControlGroup is actually an Observable. For our name field we don’t want to transform the data at all so we just assign it to the plain Observable. Angular 2 then subscribes to this Observable when you use the async pipe inside your template.

To calculate the bmi-Observable we’re doing something more complicated so let’s have a closer look:


debounceTime emits an element from it’s source after any given time (200 ms in our case). This is very useful when we don’t want to react to every single key press. In this case it won’t change the BMI value if you just quickly delete a character and add it again directly after. It’s even more powerful when you use it for something like reacting to key presses with HTTP requests.

.map(value => toBmi(value.weight, value.height))

map is a very common operator in functional programming, it transforms every single emited value from the stream according to the passed function. In our case we transform our values for the height and width into a BMI value, by calling the toBmi function (omitted here).

.filter(value => value > 0);

Lastly we got filter which is another very common operator. It tells our Observable to only emit values when they fulfil the given predicate. We use it here to filter out any values that are 0 or NaN.

We then use the bmi to create the category Observable which maps a specific bmi to a category like “Normal”, “Underweight” or “Obese”.

Now when we run this with a Person instance we get a fully functioning application that calculates the BMI, written in pure FRP without any external mutable state. But wait a minute, this app hardly has any state at all. “This was way too easy. I want to see a real CRUD App”.

Alright, alright, let’s expand our example to create a list of the component we just created (I know I suck at thinking of example apps, sue me!).

First, let’s create a small template to display our list:

        <li *ngFor="#person of people | async">
            <person-bmi [person]="person"></person-bmi> 
    <button (click)="addNewPerson()">Add new Person</button>

Pretty easy so far, all of the syntax here should be quite easy to understand if you’re familiar with Angular 2. If you’re not, check out the cheat sheet.

Now, it’s time to write the component for this template.

export class PersonListComponent {
    people: Observable<Person[]>;
    addNewPerson: () => any;
    constructor() {
        const peopleSignal = Observable.create(observer => {
            this.addNewPerson = () =>;
        this.people = => [new Person()])
        .startWith([new Person()])
        .scan((accumulator: Person[], value) => acc.concat(value));

This is all the code needed for making a list, and see there, we’re not mutating any state. Hah! Told ya! Okay in all seriousness, let’s take a look at what we wrote here.

The people field is an Observable again, this time it’s an array though. We’ll take a look at that in more detail soon. Then we have the addNewPerson function, that get’s called whenever we press our button.

Now let’s take a look at peopleSignal. What we see here is how we create an Observable using Observable.create(). By binding our addNewPerson function to call we ensure that, this Obvservable will emit a value everytime we click the button. This is far from pretty, sadly, but it’s currently the only way to create one from an event listener in Angular 2 (Let’s hope future versions offer something better!).

Then as a last step we transform our peopleSignal Observable into one that’s actually going to get things done. The first call to map tells our Observable to now emit an Array with exactly one new Person. The next step is a call to startWith. This sets the first value of people to be an Array with a single entry. Without startWith our Observable would be empty when we first start the app.

Now comes the cool part, scan is an operator that works very similar to reduce or fold. It processes the whole sequence and returns a single value, for example: sum and average are very often implemented using reduce. The main difference between scan and reduce is that scan will emit an intermediate value everytime the Observable emits one. reduce on the other hand only emits a value once the sequence ends. Our ability to click on our button won’t end anytime soon, so we definitely need the scan operator for this. The function we pass into scan will make sure, that every new value will be concatenated to our accumulator.

And with that we’re done. You can see the full app running here. We only used the forms API, but the HTTP Api also exposes Observables and can be used in almost the same way. This app is by no means production ready, but it’s enough to give you an idea, of what you can do with Angular and FRP.


Like React before it, Angular 2 doesn’t force you to use any specific architecture. However, like React before it, I feel it’s best to take a functional approach as much as we can. Using FRP we can coordinate between different components or server backends much more easily, since we don’t have to worry as much about managing our state. In the end, avoiding side effects as much as you can, can really save you time in building a complex reactive program.

Personally, I’m very content with the API the Angular developers have given us. It makes Angular 2 extremely flexible. If this post has you intrigued, I suggest you check out Cycle.js and/or Elm. Both are frameworks that take this kind of approach and expand upon it (although Elm is technically a full language). Unlike Angular and React these frameworks specifically want you to use this specific type of architecture. It’s highly interresting, how far you can take these approaches and I’ve enjoyed every minute of it.

If you’re already using some form of Reactive Programming with Flux and Redux, you should consider giving RxJS a try. I feel it’s much easier, and you can use that gained knowledge in any other language that provides the Rx Api (which is basically every common language out there). You can even find this quote in the Redux docs:

The question is: do you really need Redux if you already use Rx? Maybe not. It’s not hard to re-implement Redux in Rx. Some say it’s a two-liner using Rx .scan() method. It may very well be!

We’ve come a long way since Backbone, Knockout and the original AngularJS and the future looks even brighter! I hope you all enjoyed this piece and consider FRP in your future Angular 2 Project.

You can find all of the code shown here in this GitHub Repo.

Further reading:

Managing state in angular 2

FRP for Angular2 Developers - RxJs and Observables

Angular 2 Application Architecture - Building Redux-like apps using RxJs